Biosynthesized Nanomaterials with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

Document Type : Review Article


1 CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

2 Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, 45137–66731 Iran

3 Cellular and molecular research center, Medical Basic Sciences Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 415683111, Iran

5 Department of Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan P.O. Box 65178-38736, Iran

6 Institute of Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials—National Research Council (IPCB-CNR), Viale J.F. Kennedy 54—Mostra d'Oltremare pad. 20, 80125 Naples, Italy

7 Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, 721302 India

8 Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, IPCB-CNR, 80125, Naples, Italy

9 Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Biomaterials, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy

10 Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Naples, Italy

11 Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Computing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208, United States

12 Department of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul, 06978, South Korea

13 Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2088, South Africa


Nanomaterials are structures with dimensions less than 100 nm. Among different nanomaterials, metal- and carbon-based nanoarchitectures have attracted interest due to their ease of production, biocompatibility, low cost, excellent physio-chemistry characteristics, and biological activities. They are synthesized by various methods such as physical, chemical, and biological methods Biosynthesized nanomaterials exhibit remarkably improved biological activities such as antioxidant and antibacterial capabilities. Antioxidant nanomaterials can shield molecules from oxidation processes by decelerating or preventing them from oxidizing in the first place. These nanomaterials are widely used in the food industries and biomedical sectors. Several factors (e.g., size, shape, composition, and synthesized procedure) may influence the antimicrobial activity of these nanocompounds. It was shown that biosynthesized nanomaterials have higher antioxidant and antimicrobial activities than those by conventional methods. In the present review, we overview the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of biosynthesized metal- and carbon-based nanoarchitectures. In addition, the mechanism of antimicrobial activity, as well as commonly used methods to measure the antioxidant activity of nanomaterials, are highlighted.

Graphical Abstract

Biosynthesized Nanomaterials with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties